SAN FRANCISCO -- Stunned and bleeding after a Boeing 777 crash-landed at the San Francisco airport, hundreds of passengers staggered across the debris-strewn tarmac, some trying to help the critically injured, others desperately calling 911 and begging for more ambulances as dire minutes ticked away.
“There’s not enough medics out here,” a caller told a dispatcher in a 911 call released by the California Highway Patrol. “There is a woman out here on the street, on the runway, who is pretty much burned very severely on the head and we don’t know what to do.”
Two people died and 180 of the 307 passengers were hurt Saturday when Asiana Airlines Flight 214 slammed into a seawall at the end of the runway. Authorities said Thursday that the landing gear hit first, followed by the tail. The impact ripped off the back of the plane, tossed three flight attendants and their seats onto the runway and scattered boulders from the wall across the pavement.
The airliner, which came in too low and too slow, spun and skidded 2,000 feet before stopping. The battered passengers, some with broken bones, were told over the jet’s public-address system to stay in their seats for another 90 seconds while the cockpit consulted with the control tower, a safety procedure to prevent people from evacuating into life-threatening fires or machinery.
“We don’t know what the pilots were thinking, but I can tell you that in previous accidents there have been crews that don’t evacuate. They wait for other vehicles to come, to be able to get passengers out safely,” said National Transportation Safety Board Chairman Deborah Hersman.
And in this accident, it appears one of the two Chinese teens who died may have been run over by a fire truck rushing to the burning jet.
Many passengers jumped out the back of the plane or slid down inflated slides through emergency exits. Then, say some, an unnerving wait began.
“We walked and this lady starts to appear, really stumbling and waving her hand and yelling. It took a couple seconds to register,” said Elliott Stone, who was returning from a martial arts competition in South Korea. “Then as I saw the condition she was in, I was like, oh my goodness.”
The woman collapsed, he said, and he and his family realized there might be more victims nearby, “so we started running, searching for more. I believe we ended up finding four people that were in the back in the rubble, all very bad condition. We stayed with them, comforted them, yelling for ambulances, fire trucks, anyone to come help.”
911 tapes recorded frantic callers, pleading for help.
“We’ve been on the ground, I don’t know, 20 minutes, a half hour,” said one woman. “There are people laying on the tarmac with critical injuries, head injuries. We’re almost losing a woman here. We’re trying to keep her alive.”
San Francisco Fire Department spokeswoman Mindy Talmadge said Thursday that some passengers who called 911 may not have immediately seen ambulances at the scene because they were dispatched to a nearby staging area as first responders assessed who needed to be taken to the hospital.
“There is a procedure for doing it,” Talmadge said. “You don’t cause more chaos in an already chaotic situation. You don’t do that with 50 ambulances running around all over the place.”
Within 18 minutes of receiving word of the crash, five ambulances and more than a dozen other rescue vehicles were at the scene or en route, in addition to airport fire crews and crews from San Mateo County and other agencies already on the scene, Talmadge said.
“Our response was immediate,” Talmadge said. “It’s not what you may see in the movies. That’s not how a real-life response is to a large-scale incident.”
Most of the passengers who were hurt had only minor injuries and were quickly treated and released from hospitals. On Thursday, just nine remained hospitalized, three in critical condition.
Among those who walked away without serious injury were the four pilots, including Lee Gang-kuk, who was landing the big jet for his first time at the San Francisco airport, and Lee Jeong-Min, who was training him.
While the two men had years of aviation experience, this mission involved unfamiliar duties, and it was the first time they had flown together.
The pilot trainee earlier told investigators he was blinded by a flash of light at about 500 feet, which would have been 34 seconds before impact and the point at which the airliner began to slow and drop precipitously.
On Thursday, Hersman sought to clarify the pilot’s description, saying the light did not prevent him from seeing his instruments. He told investigators the light may have been a reflection of the sun.
Hersman also said there were two calls to abort the landing only a moment before the crash. The first call was made about three seconds before impact, the second about 1.5 seconds later. It wasn’t clear who made the calls or if they came from the same pilot or two different pilots.
Details emerging from Asiana pilot interviews show the captains thought the airliner’s speed was being controlled by an autothrottle set for 157 mph.
Inspectors found that the autothrottle had been “armed,” or made ready for activation, Hersman said. But investigators are still determining whether it had been engaged. In the last two minutes, there was a lot of use of autopilot and autothrottle, and investigators are going to look into whether pilots made the appropriate commands and if they knew what they were doing, she said.
Even if the autothrottle malfunctioned, Hersman stressed, the pilots were ultimately responsible for control of the airliner.
“There are two pilots in the cockpit for a reason,” she said. “They’re there to fly, to navigate, to communicate and if they’re using automation, a big key is to monitor.”
When the pilots realized the plane was in trouble, they both reached for the throttle. Passengers heard a loud roar as the plane revved up in a last-minute attempt to abort the landing.
The flight originated in Shanghai and stopped over in Seoul before making the nearly 11-hour trip to San Francisco.
On Wednesday, other survivors and their family members visited the crash site, where some shed tears and others stood in disbelief. They were kept about 50 yards away from the wreckage, which was surrounded by metal railing.
“What I think I really came for was to meet other fellow passengers and share a bit of our stories,” passenger Ben Levy said. “How we felt and how we got out of that plane.”
NTSB findings on SF plane crash at a glance
After departing from Shanghai and stopping in Seoul, Asiana Flight 214 makes its final approach into San Francisco International Airport following a 10-hour flight across the Pacific Ocean. A preliminary review of the crash by U.S. investigators turns up the following:
• APPROACH PROCEEDS NORMALLY: Pilot Lee Gang-guk, making his first landing at San Francisco in a Boeing 777, is at the controls. His training instructor, Lee Jeong-min, is the co-pilot and is on his first flight as an instructor. They receive clearance from air traffic control to land without instrument landing system. Visibility is about 10 miles with winds out of the southwest at 7 knots.
• PLANE DESCENDS: At 1,600 feet and 82 seconds before impact, the autopilot is disengaged, a normal procedure. At 1,400 feet and 73 seconds before impact, the plane’s speed is about 170 knots.
• 35 SECONDS FROM IMPACT: Automated callout in cockpit signals plane is at 500 feet. Speed has dropped to 134 knots, just below the optimal landing speed of 137 knots that the pilots believe has been programmed into the “autothrottle.” Lee Jeong-min recognizes the plane is coming in too low and tells Lee Gang-guk to “pull back.”
• 18 SECONDS OUT: Automated callout indicating plane has reached 200 feet. Speed is 118 knots. The Precision Approach Path Indicator that uses red and white lights to tell pilots if they are approaching correctly is all red, indicating the plane is too low.
• 8-9 SECONDS OUT: Automated 100-foot callout. Plane is traveling at about 112 knots. One of the pilots calls for more speed and throttles begin moving forward.
• 4 SECONDS OUT: The stick shaker, a yoke the pilots hold, begins vibrating, indicating the plane could stall.
• 3 SECONDS OUT: The plane is traveling at 103 knots, the slowest speed recorded by the flight data recorder. The engines begin increasing power from 50 percent. One pilot calls to abort the landing and go around for another try.
• 1.5 SECONDS OUT: A second pilot calls to abort the landing.
• CRASH: The plane, which has increased its speed to 106 knots, clips the seawall at the end of the runway with its landing gear and then its tail, which breaks off. Three flight attendants in the back of the plane are ejected but survive. The plane spins on the runway and slides to a stop. The controller declares an emergency and rescue vehicles rush to the scene.